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Eventually, numerous animals that were considered sacred (cats, dogs, cows, etc.) were likewise embalmed.From the Middle Ages until the 18th cent., ground Egyptian mummies were sold in Europe as a panacea.Trace-element analysis of hair can reveal exposure to toxic elements (e.g., mercury and lead).Causes of death and active or inactive disease processes can often be ascertained and sometimes point to murder or ritual sacrifice.In humid Lower Egypt practically all mummies have perished. C.) the art of embalming had reached its height, and it is possible to determine fairly accurately how the great pharaohs appeared in life, e.g., Amenhotep II (in his tomb near Thebes) and Thutmose III, Thutmose IV, Tutankhamen, Seti I, and Ramses II (all in Cairo).Mummification was related to beliefs concerning the afterlife and was undertaken to safeguard the fate of the soul.ne Saturday in the spring of 1950, brothers Viggo and Emil Højgaard from the small village of Tollund, in Denmark, were cutting peat in a local bog when they uncovered a dead man. His eyelashes, chin stubble, and the wrinkles in his skin were visible; his leather cap was intact.
Another find of a man in a melting glacier was made in NW Canada in 1999.
The custom was prevalent among many ancient peoples and still survives in many cultures. The word is of Arabic derivation and refers primarily to the burials found in Egypt, where the practice of mummification was perfected over the centuries to an extreme of elaboration.
It was highly developed in dynastic Egypt, where it was used for some 30 cent...... Investigations of mummified remains have grown increasingly sophisticated with advances in dating techniques and forensic science.
Mummies can yield blood and DNA samples providing valuable medical and genetic information.
Egyptian mummies more than 5,000 years old consist of hardly more than bones, skin, and hair, owing their preservation largely to the dry air of Upper Egypt.