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It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east.Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries.From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa.
Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century.
From about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived during the Bantu expansion from central Africa.
From the late 18th century onwards, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
On their way further northwards, however, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek, Gobabis, and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment.
The Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam, and Herero.