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It gained independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945 when Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946.The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71.
The area designated by the word has changed over time.), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.The western two-thirds of Syria′s Golan Heights are since 1967 occupied by Israel and were in 1981 effectively annexed by Israel, whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria, with the UNDOF maintaining a buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, and Turks.As a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have since emerged on Syria′s territory, including the Syrian opposition, Rojava, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.Syria is ranked last on the Global Peace Index, making it the most violent country in the world.