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Fearing a military conflict that could not be won in the long term, siʔał signed the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott with the United States, agreeing to live on the Port Madison Indian Reservation and give up title to the remainder of Suquamish lands.The United States, led by Governor Isaac Stevens, agreed to provide health care, education and recognized and affirmed their fishing, hunting and gathering rights.

siʔał always self-identified as Suquamish in over 30 years of historic records, beginning in 1833, when he was first mentioned in an Hudson’s Bay Company daily log for Fort Nisqually.

The day before the impending attack, siʔał led his party to a bend in the White River where the river channel was narrow and the current swift.

They cut a large tree that fell across the river channel, leaving only a few inches of clearance, and waited for the raiders.

siʔał told early American settlers that he had been at the Suquamish camp on Restoration Point in May, 1792 and recalled seeing the Vancouver Expedition ships.

His early years were a time of dramatic changes among tribal groups in Western Washington.

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